The Kahlil Gibran Collective

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In Magazines

A collection of three short stories, it was first published in 1906 by New York newspaper Al-Mohajer. It is known in English as 'Nymphs of the Valley' or 'Brides of the Meadows'. “Rimal al-ajyal wa al-nar al-khalidah” (The Ash of Centuries and the Immortal Flame) is a story of reincarnation. Nathan, the son of the priest of Astarte in Baalbek, loses his lover to disease. Despite her promise that they will meet again, he is maddened by grief and wanders lost in the desert. Ages pass, and a Bedouin shepherd, ‘Ali al-Husayni, falls asleep in the ruins of the temple and dreams of love. Seeing a girl by a stream, he recognizes himself as Nathan and her as his long-lost lover. It is noteworthy that the main part of the story is set in the Phoenician, not the Islamic, Lebanese past. The other two stories deal with social oppression. In “Marta al-baniya” an orphan is kidnaped from her village by a man from the city, who rapes her and keeps her as his mistress. She becomes pregnant, and he throws her out. When she dies, the priests refuse to bury her in consecrated ground. In “Yuhanna al-majnum” (Yuhanna the Madman) a poor cowherd’s cattle stray onto monastery land while he is reading his Bible, and the monks refuse to return them. When Yuhanna preaches against the monks at the Easter service, they arrest him; he is freed only after his father testifies that he is a madman.

Tags: 1922

In Digital Archive

Nahnu wa Antum [We and You], Mira'at al-Gharb, vol. 12 no. 1316, January 6, 1911, p. 1 [digitized by the Moise A. Khayrallah Center for Lebanese Diaspora Studies, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA]. 

Tags: arabic, Mira'atal-gharb, newspaper, poem, Unitedstates, weandyou

In Digital Archive

Nubdha fi Fan al-Musiqa [The Music], New York: Al-Mohajer, 1905 [owned by Mary Elizabeth Haskell; inscribed by the Author].

A short ode to the art of music, it is the first book published by the author. He begins by comparing music to the speech of his beloved, opening the dialogue to how music was worshiped by civilizations of the past and concludes with short poetic descriptions of four modes of Middle Eastern music. 

Tags: A-Mohajer, al-Musiqa, kahlilgibran

In Digital Archive

Al-'Ubudiyah [Slavery], Mira'at al-Gharb, vol. 13 no. 1420, September 13, 1911, Part II, p. 1 , Part II, p. 1 [digitized by the Moise A. Khayrallah Center for Lebanese Diaspora Studies, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA].

Tags: GibrankhalilGibran, kahlilgibran, Mira'atal-gharb, slavery

In Digital Archive

Abna' al-Alihah wa Ahfad al-Qurud [The Sons of the Goddess and the Sons of the Monkeys], Mira'at al-Gharb vol. 13 no. 1506, April 3, 1912, p.1 [digitized by the Moise A. Khayrallah Center for Lebanese Diaspora Studies, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA].

Tags: kahlilgibran, Mira'atal-gharb, thesonsandgoddessandthesonsofmonkeys

In Digital Archive

Ayyuha al-Layl [An Ode to the Night], al-Funun 1, no. 1 (April 1913), pp. 1-4  [owned by Mary Elizabeth Haskell; inscribed by the Author].

Tags: al-funun, anodetothenight, GibrankhalilGibran, kahlilgibran, maryelizabethhaskell

In Digital Archive

Alá Bab al-Haykil [Short Story], Ya Zaman al-Hubb [Poem], al-Funun 1, no. 3 (June 1913), pp. 17-21; 36-37 [digitized by the Moise A. Khayrallah Center for Lebanese Diaspora Studies, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA].

Tags: al-funun, Alababal-kaykil, GibrankhalilGibran, kahlilgibran, yazamanal-hubb

In Digital Archive

Qabla al-Intihar: Safhah Matwiyah min Dafatir Haffar al-Qubur al-Qadimah [Short Story], al-Funun 1, no. 5 (August 1913), p. 1-3 [digitized by the Moise A. Khayrallah Center for Lebanese Diaspora Studies, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA].

Tags: al-funun, GibrankhalilGibran, kahlilgibran, qablaal-intihar

In Digital Archive

Abu al-`Ala Ahmad al-Ma`ari: Kama Yatasawwirahu Jibran Khalil Jibran. Naqlan `an Ahad Dafatirihi al-`Atiqah [Drawing]; Abu al-`Ala Ahmad al-Ma`ari [Article], al-Funun 1, no. 6 (September 1913), pp. 57-58 [digitized by the Moise A. Khayrallah Center for Lebanese Diaspora Studies, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA].

Tags: al-funun, GibrankhalilGibran, kahlilgibran

In Digital Archive

Birkat al-Dam [Drawing], Abu al-Tayyib al-Mutanabbi [Drawing], al-Funun 1, no. 7 (October 1913), pp. 33; 65 [digitized by the Moise A. Khayrallah Center for Lebanese Diaspora Studies, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA]. 

Tags: al-funun, birkatal-dam, GibrankhalilGibran, kahlilgibran

In Digital Archive

al-Sha`ir: Uqaddimuha ilá (M. M.) [Poem], Ilá al-Muslimin min Sha`ir Masihi [Essay], al-Funun 1, no. 8 (November 1913), pp. 1-3; 37-39 [digitized by the Moise A. Khayrallah Center for Lebanese Diaspora Studies, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA].

Tags: al-funun, GibrankhalilGibran, kahlilgibran

In Digital Archive

Anti wa-Ana [Poem], al-Funun 1, no. 9 (December 1913), p. 70 [digitized by the Moise A. Khayrallah Center for Lebanese Diaspora Studies, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA].

Tags: al-funun, GibrankhalilGibran, kahlilgibran

In Digital Archive

Kitab Dam'ah wa Ibtisama [A Book of Tears and Mirth], New York: Atlantic Press, 1914 [owned by Mary Elizabeth Haskell; inscribed by the Author].

In 1914 Nasib 'Aridah, the editor of al-Funun, published this collection of fifty-six of Gibran’s early newspaper columns (known in English as 'A Tear and a Smile' or 'Tears and Laughter'); most are a page or two long, and the volume as a whole comprises about a hundred pages. For the most part they are prose poems: painterly expositions of a vivid image or story fragments. The themes are love, spirituality, beauty, nature, and alienation and homecoming. Typical are “Hayat al-hubb” (The Life of Love), portraying the seasons of love of a man and a woman from the spring of youth to the winter of old age, and “Amama ‘arsh al-jamal” (Before the Throne of Beauty), in which the goddess of nature tells the poet how she was worshiped by his ancestors and counsels him to commune with nature in wild places. Gibran feigned reluctance to republish these pieces on the grounds that he had moved beyond them. They are not especially deep, but they have a freshness and the moral and aesthetic earnestness that was always Gibran’s strength in his writing and his art. The collection was dedicated to Haskell using her initials, “M.E.H.”

Tags: al-funun, GibrankhalilGibran, kahlilgibran, maryelizabethhaskell, tearandasmile, tearsandlaughter

In Digital Archive

Ru’ya [Short Story], al-Hasan ibn Hani al-Mulaqqab bi-Abi Nuwas [Drawing], Ya Nafs [Poem], al-Funun 2, no. 1 (June 1916), pp. 1-3; 65; 70-71 [digitized by the Moise A. Khayrallah Center for Lebanese Diaspora Studies, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA].

Tags: abi-nawas, al-funun, GibrankhalilGibran, kahlilgibran

In Digital Archive

al-Layl wa-al-Majnun [Short Story], `Umar Ibn al-Farid, al-`Arif bi-Allah Sharaf al-Din [Drawing], al-Farid [Essay], al-Funun 2, no. 2 (July 1916), pp. 97-99; 152; 153-4 [digitized by the Moise A. Khayrallah Center for Lebanese Diaspora Studies, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA].

Tags: al-funun, GibrankhalilGibran, kahlilgibran, MajnunLayla

In Digital Archive

Bi-Allah Ya-Qalbi [Poem], Majnun Layla [Drawing], al-Funun 2, no. 3 (August 1916), pp. 211-2; 258 [digitized by the Moise A. Khayrallah Center for Lebanese Diaspora Studies, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA].

Tags: al-funun, GibrankhalilGibran, kahlilgibran, MajnunLayla

In Digital Archive

Night and the Madman (From "The Madman"), The Seven Arts, November, 1916, pp. 32-33.

Tags: GibrankhalilGibran, kahlilgibran, themadman, thesevenarts

In Digital Archive

The Greater Sea (From the Drama, "The Madman"), The Seven Arts, December, 1916, pp. 133-134.

Tags: GibrankhalilGibran, kahlilgibran, thegreatersea, themadman, thesevenarts

In Digital Archive

The Astronomer (From the Drama, "The Madman"), On Giving and Taking (From the Drama, "The Madman"), The Seven Arts, January, 1917, pp. 236-237.

Tags: GibrankhalilGibran, kahlilgibran, theastronomer, themadman, thesevenarts

In Digital Archive

The Seven Selves (From "The Madman" — a Drama), The Seven Arts, February, 1917, pp. 345-356.

Tags: GibrankhalilGibran, kahlilgibran, themadman, thesevenarts, thesevenselves

In Digital Archive

Alice Raphael, The Art of Kahlil Gibran, The Seven Arts, March, 1917, pp. 531-534

Tags: aliceraphhael, GibrankhalilGibran, kahilgibran, theartofkahlilgibran, themadman, thesevenarts

In Digital Archive

Poems from the Arabic (The Two Hermits, My Friend, The Three Ants, God), The Seven Arts, May, 1917, pp. 64-67.

Tags: GibrankhalilGibran, God, kahlilgibran, themadman, thesevenarts, thethreeants, thetwohermits

In Digital Archive

"The Book of Khalid" by Ameen Rihani is considered to be the first novel by an Arab-American writer in English. The story is often seen as an influence on Kahlil Gibran's "The Prophet." The novel is divided into three books, dedicated in order 'to Man,' 'to Nature,' and 'to God.' Each section begins and ends with an illustration by Gibran, who is also the author of the Arabic calligraphy on the frontispiece of the book ('Kitab Khalid, 1911').

Tags: AmeenRihani, GibrankhalilGibran, kahlilgibran, thebookofkhalid

In Digital Archive

Ma Wara’ al-Rida’ [Short Story],  al-`Alamah ibn Khaldun [Drawing], al-Funun 2, no. 4 (September 1916), pp. 289-291; 355 [digitized by the Moise A. Khayrallah Center for Lebanese Diaspora Studies, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA].

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In Digital Archive

Untitled Drawing [Starving Family - Cover], Mata Ahli [Poem], al-Ja’i`ah al-Musta`tiyah [Drawing], Wijh Ummi, Wijh Ummati [Drawing], al-Funun 2, no. 5 (October 1916), pp. 385-389; 390; 420 [digitized by www.al-funun.org (Nasib Aridah Organization)].

Tags: al-funun, GibrankhalilGibran, kajlilgibran, untitleddrawing

In Digital Archive

al-Samm fi al-Dasim [Short Story], al-Funun 2, no. 6 (November 1916), pp.  481-486 [digitized by the Moise A. Khayrallah Center for Lebanese Diaspora Studies, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA].

Tags: al-funun, al-sammfial-dasim, GibrankhalilGibran, kahlilgibran

In Digital Archive

Yasu' al-Maslub [The Crucified], Mira'at al-Gharb, vol. 12 no. 1357, April 14, 1911, p. 1 [digitized by the Moise A. Khayrallah Center for Lebanese Diaspora Studies, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA].

Tags: GibrankhalilGibran, kahlilgibran, Mira'atal-gharb, TheCrucified

In Digital Archive

War and the Small Nations, The Borzoi, New York: Knopf, 1920 p. 88-89

Tags: GibrankhalilGibran, kahlilgibran, knopf, theborzoi, warandsmallnations

In Digital Archive

O Mother Mine, I Wandered Among the Mountains, Three Maiden Lovers [Three Lebanese Folk Poems Translated from the Arabic], Folk Songs of Many Peoples, Vol. II, New York: The Woman's Press, 1922, pp.  370-373; 380-381; 386-387.

Tags: folksongsbymanypeoples, Gibran, kahilgibran, thewomenspress

In Digital Archive

Inscribed on the front flyleaf in Arabic: "Ila Achy Jawaad 'Arid [To my brother Jawaad 'Arid] Rashid Ayyub." This is the second of the three volumes of verse published by the Lebanese-born poet Rashid Ayoub (1872-1941) nicknamed the "complaining" or "dervish" poet. Its frontispiece is a characteristic image by Kahlil Gibran (Jubran Kahlil Jibran). As a merchant, he visited Paris and Manchester and later emigrated to New York, where he joined the romantic movement of the Mahjar ("exiled") poets, founding with other writers, al-Rabita al-Qalamiyya (The Pen Bond), the first Arab-American literary society.

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In Digital Archive

Bi-al-Ams [Poem], al-Funun 2, no. 7 (December 1916), pp. 589-590 [digitized by the Moise A. Khayrallah Center for Lebanese Diaspora Studies, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA].

Tags: al-funun, bi-alAms, GibrankhalilGibran, kahlilgibran

In Digital Archive

Naimy's only volume of collected poems appeared as late as 1945. It includes 44 poems and 4 drawings by the Author. One of the poems (If but Thorns Realized, pp. 28-29) is illustrated by a pencil drawing by Kahlil Gibran. In the drawing is a patch of rough, prickly bramble. Just outside the patch and all by itself stands a white lily with a long stalk. In the bramble and agonizingly caught by the thorns are a number of naked men hopelessly in search of the lily whose smell they detect but whose place they cannot identify. Near the lily and just outside the thorny patch stands a man giant. His back to the men and the thorns, and his head soaring high until it touches the clouds, he is able to see the flower and puts his right hand gently over it.

Tags: eyelidwispherings, GibrankhalilGibran, Hamsaljufun, kahlilgibran, MikhailNaimy

In Digital Archive

Gibran’s first book in English, 'The Madman: His Parables and Poems,' was completed in 1917; it was brought out in 1918 by the young literary publisher Alfred A. Knopf, who went on to publish all of Gibran’s English works. An introduction, in which the narrator tells how he became a madman when a thief stole his masks and he ran maskless through the streets, is followed by a series of pieces that were written, and sometimes published, separately. Most were composed in Arabic and translated into English by Gibran with Haskell’s editorial assistance. New here are a sardonic or bitter tone and a move from prose poem to parable as Gibran’s major mode of expression. The pieces include “The Two Cages,” in which a caged sparrow greets a caged lion each morning as “brother,” and “The Three Ants,” in which the insects meet on the nose of a sleeping man. The first two remark on the barren nature of this strange land; the third insists that they are on the nose of the Supreme Ant. The other ants laugh at his strange preaching; at that moment the man awakes, scratches his nose, and crushes the ants. Reviews were mixed but mostly positive. Mayy Ziyada, however, told Gibran that the “cruelty” and “dark caverns” in the work made her nervous. Several of the poems were anthologized in poetry collections.

Tags: GibrankhalilGibran, kahilgibran, knopf, themadman, themadmanhisparablesandpoems

In Digital Archive

In 1920 Knopf published 'The Forerunner: His Parables and Poems.' It begins with a prologue in which the narrator says that each person is his or her own forerunner. Among the twenty-three parables are one in which a king abandons his kingdom for the forest; another in which a saint meets a brigand and confesses to committing the same sins as the bandit; and a third in which a weathercock complains because the wind always blows in his face. The volume closes with a speech, “The Last Watch,” presumably by the Forerunner, addressing the people of a sleeping city. The bitterness of the wartime writings of the years is largely gone, replaced by an ethereal love and pity for humanity that foreshadows Gibran’s later work.

Tags: GibrankhalilGibran, kahlilgibran, knopf, theforerunner

In Digital Archive

al-Falaki [Short Story], al-Funun 2, no. 8 (January 1917), p. 673 [digitized by the Moise A. Khayrallah Center for Lebanese Diaspora Studies, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA].

Tags: al-Falaki, al-funun, GibrankhalilGibran, kahlilgibran

In Digital Archive

al-Namalat al-Thalath [Poem], al-Kalb al-Hakim [Poem], al-Funun 2, no. 9 (February 1917), pp. 781-782 [digitized by the Moise A. Khayrallah Center for Lebanese Diaspora Studies, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA].

Tags: al-funun, al-hakim, al-Kalb, al-Mamalat, al-Thalath, GibrankhalilGibran, kahlilgibran

In Digital Archive

al-Bahr al-A`zam [Short Story], Ughniyat al-Layl [Poem], al-Khansa’ [Drawing], al-Funun 2, no. 10 (March 1917), pp. 885-887; 931-933 [digitized by The American University of Beirut, AUB, Lebanon].

Tags: al-Bahral-Azam, al-funun, al-Khansa, GibrankhalilGibran, kahlilgibran, Ughniyatal-Layl

In Digital Archive

Allah [Short Story], al-Funun 2, no. 11 (April 1917), pp. 989-990 [digitized by the Moise A. Khayrallah Center for Lebanese Diaspora Studies, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA].

Tags: al-funun, Allah, GibrankhalilGibran, kahlilgibran

In Digital Archive

Ya Sahibi [Poem], al-Funun 2, no. 12 (May 1917), pp. 1201-1203 [digitized by the Moise A. Khayrallah Center for Lebanese Diaspora Studies, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA].

Tags: al-funun, GibrankhalilGibran, kahlilgibran, YaSahibi

In Digital Archive

al-Banafsajah al-Tamuhah [Short Story], al-Mu`tamad Ibn `Abbad [Drawing], al-Funun 3, no. 1 (August 1917), pp. 1-6; 73 [digitized by the Moise A. Khayrallah Center for Lebanese Diaspora Studies, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA].

Tags: al-funun, alBanafsajahalTamahah, GibrankhalilGibran, kahlilgibran

In Digital Archive

al-`Asifah [Short Story], al-Ghazzali [Essay and Drawing], al-Funun 3, no. 2 (September 1917), pp. 81-95; 143-144 [digitized by the Moise A. Khayrallah Center for Lebanese Diaspora Studies, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA].

Tags: al-funun, al-Ghazzali, alAsifah, GibrankhalilGibran, kahlilgibran

In Digital Archive

Muwashshahat Jadidah: al-Bahr; al-Sharurah; al-Jabbar al-Ri’bal; al-Shuhrah [Poem], Bi-al-Ams, wa-al-Yawm, wa-Ghadan [Poem], al-Ard [Poem], Ibn Sina wa-Qasidatuhu [Criticism], Ibn Sina [Drawing], al-Funun 3, no. 3 (October 1917), pp. 163-166; 171-172; 191-192 [digitized by the Moise A. Khayrallah Center for Lebanese Diaspora Studies, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA].

Tags: al-Ard, al-Bahr, al-funun, al-Jabbar, al-Ri’bal;, al-Sharurah;, Bi-al-Ams, ibn-Sina, MuwashshahatJadidah, wa-al-Yawm, wa-Ghadan

In Digital Archive

al-Hakiman [Short Story], Bayna al-Fasl wa-al-Fasl [Short Story], Ibn al-Muqaffa` [Drawing], al-Funun 3, no. 4 (November 1917), pp. 275-276; 297 [digitized by the Moise A. Khayrallah Center for Lebanese Diaspora Studies, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA].

Tags: al-funun, al-Hakiman, Baynaal-Fasl, GibrankhalilGibran, ibnal-Muqaffa, kahlilgibran

In Digital Archive

Untitled Poem, al-Funun 3, no. 6 (June 1918), p. 465 [digitized by the Moise A. Khayrallah Center for Lebanese Diaspora Studies, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA].

Tags: al-funun, GibrankhalilGibran, kahlilgibran, untitledpoem

In Digital Archive

al-Husayn al-Awwal, Malik al-Hijaz [Drawing], Harun al-Rashid, A`zam Muluk al-`Arab [Drawing], al-Funun 3, no. 7 (July 1918), pp. 509; 556 [digitized by the Moise A. Khayrallah Center for Lebanese Diaspora Studies, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA]. 

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In Digital Archive

Qard al-Hurriyah [Essay], al-Umam wa-Dhawatuha [Essay], al-Funun 3, no. 8 (August 1918), pp. v-ix; 561-5 [digitized by the Moise A. Khayrallah Center for Lebanese Diaspora Studies, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA].

Tags: al-funun, al-Umamwa-Dhawatuha, GibrankhalilGibran, kahlilgibran, Qardal-Hurriyah

In Digital Archive

In 1919 Gibran published 'al-Mawakib.' He had written it during summer vacations in Cohasset, Massachusetts, in 1917 and 1918 but wanted to bring it out in an elegant illustrated edition on heavy stock that was unavailable in wartime. It is a two-hundred-line poem in traditional rhyme and meter comprising a dialogue between an old man and a youth on the edge of a forest. The old man is rooted in the world of civilization and the city; the youth is a creature of the forest and represents nature and wholeness. The old man expresses a gloomy philosophy to which the carefree youth gives optimistic responses. Some critics noted the irregularities in the Arabic; Gibran’s haphazard education meant that his Arabic, like his English, was never perfect. Conservative reviewers objected to the poem’s solecisms, but Mayy Ziyada dismissed them as expressions of the poet’s independence. The work immediately became popular, especially as a piece to be sung. It is one of the great examples of mahjari (immigrant) poetry and pioneered a new form of verse in Arabic.

Tags: Al-Mawakib, GibrankhalilGibran, kahlilgibran, TheProcessions

In Digital Archive

A fourth collection of Gibran’s Arabic stories and prose poems, al-’Awasif (The Storms or The Tempests), came out in Cairo in 1920. The contents dated from 1912 to 1918 and had been published in al-Funun and Mir’at al-gharb (Mirror of the West), an immigrant newspaper. It consists of thirty-one pieces that are generally harsher in tone than the sketches and stories of the three earlier collections. In the title story the narrator is curious about Yusuf al-Fakhri, a hermit who abandoned society in his thirtieth year to live alone on Mount Lebanon. Driven to the hermit’s cell by a storm, he is surprised to find such comforts as cigarettes and wine. The hermit tells the narrator that he did not flee the world to be a contemplative but to escape the corruption of society. In “‘Ala bab al-haykal” (At the Gate of the Temple) a man asks passersby about the nature of love. The powerful “al-’Ubudiya” (Slavery) catalogues the forms of human bondage throughout history. In “al-Shaytan” (Satan) a priest finds the devil dying by the side of the road; Satan persuades the priest that he is necessary to the well-being of the world, and the clergyman takes him home to nurse him back to health. Several other stories deal with the political themes that had concerned Gibran during the war.

Tags: Al-'Awasif, al-funun, GibrankhalilGibran, kahlilgibran, Mira'atal-gharb, TheTempests

In Digital Archive

Gibran’s masterpiece, The Prophet, was published in September 1923. The earliest references to a mysterious prophet counseling his people before returning to his island home can be found in Haskell’s journal from 1912. Gibran worked on it from time to time and had finished much of it by 1919. He seems to have written it in Arabic and then translated it into English. As with most of his English books, Haskell acted as his editor, correcting Gibran’s chronically defective spelling and punctuation but also suggesting improvements in the wording. The work begins with the prophet Almustafa preparing to leave the city of Orphalese, where he has lived for twelve years, to return to the island of his birth. The people of the city gather and beg him not to leave, but the seeress Almitra, knowing that his ship has come for him, asks him instead to tell them his truths. The people ask him about the great themes of human life: love, marriage, children, giving, eating and drinking, and many others, concluding with death. Almustafa speaks of each of the themes in sober, sonorous aphorisms grouped into twenty-six short chapters. As in earlier books, Gibran illustrated The Prophet with his own drawings, adding to the power of the work. The Prophet received tepid reviews in Poetry and The Bookman, an enthusiastic review in the Chicago Evening Post, and little else. On the other hand, the public reception was intense. It began with a trickle of grateful letters; the first edition sold out in two months; 13,000 copies a year were sold during the Great Depression, 60,000 in 1944, and 1,000,000 by 1957. Many millions of copies were sold in the following decades, making Gibran the best-selling American poet of the twentieth century. It is clear that the book deeply moved many people. When critics finally noticed it, they were baffled by the public response; they dismissed the work as sentimental, overwritten, artificial, and affected. Neither The Prophet nor Gibran’s work, in general, are mentioned in standard accounts of twentieth-century American literature, though Gibran is universally considered a major figure in Arabic literature. Part of the critical puzzlement stems from a failure to appreciate an Arabic aesthetic: The Prophet is a Middle Eastern work that stands closer to eastern didactic classics such as the Book of Job and the works of the twelfth- and thirteenth-century Persian poets Rumi and Sa’di than to anything in the modern American canon. Gibran knew that he would never surpass The Prophet, and for the most part, his later works do not come close to measuring up to it. The book made him a celebrity, and his monastic lifestyle added to his mystique.

Tags: 1923, GibrankhalilGibran, kahlilgibran, knopf, TheProphet

In Digital Archive

Al-Bada’i’ wa al-tara’if (Best Things and Masterpieces), a collection of thirty-five of Gibran’s pieces, was published in Cairo in 1923. The works had been selected by the publisher, and the collection is uneven and miscellaneous. It includes several short articles on major Arab thinkers, illustrated with portraits drawn from Gibran’s imagination, and prose poems and sketches of the sort familiar from his earlier collections. Two pieces are of more interest than the others. “Safinat al-dubab” (A Ship in the Mist) is a strange romantic short story. A lonely young man dreams of a woman who visits him continually in his sleep and is his wife in spirit. When he is sent to Venice, he finds her; but she has just died. Iram, dhat al-’imad (Iram, City of Lofty Pillars) is a one-act play set in a city mentioned in the Qur’an. A young scholar, Najib Rahma, comes to the mysterious city seeking a prophetess, Amina al-’Alawiya, who is said to have visited there. He first meets her disciple, the dervish Zayn al-’Abidin; then Amina al-’Alawiya appears and expounds a monistic mystical philosophy.

Tags: 1923, Al-Bada’i’-wa-altara'if, bestthingsandmasterpieces, GibrankhalilGibran, kahilgibran

In Digital Archive

In 1926 Gibran published Sand and Foam. It comprises about three hundred aphorisms of two to a dozen lines, generally written in the style of The Prophet. Sand and Foam is decorated with Gibran’s drawings, and the aphorisms are separated by floral dingbats also drawn by Gibran. Some scholars consider this book the off cuts of The Prophet, written on various materials from match box cartons and napkins whenever inspiration would take hold.

Tags: 1926, GibrankhalilGibran, kahlilgibran, knopf, sandandfoam

In Digital Archive

To Young Americans of Syrian Origin [Essay], Mohammed, Prophet of Islam [Drawing], The Syrian World (July 1926), pp. 4-5; no page number [digitized by the Moise A. Khayrallah Center for Lebanese Diaspora Studies, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA].

Tags: GibrankhalilGibran, kahlilgibran, Mohammad, ProphetofIslam, TheSyrianWorld, ToyoungAmericansofSyrianOrigin

In Digital Archive

In 1928 Gibran published his longest book, Jesus, the Son of Man: His Words and His Deeds as Told and Recorded by Those Who Knew Him.Jesus had appeared in Gibran’s writings and art in various forms; he told Mary Haskell that he had recurring dreams of Jesus and mentioned wanting to write a life of Jesus in a 1909 letter to her. The book was written in a little over a year in 1926-1927. Haskell edited the manuscript. Seventy-eight people who knew Jesus—some real, some imaginary; some sympathetic, others hostile—tell of him from their own points of view. Anna is puzzled by the worship of the Magi. An orator is impressed by Jesus’ rhetoric. A merchant sees the parable of the talents as the essence of commerce and cannot understand why Jesus’ followers insist that he is a god. Pontius Pilate discusses the political factors leading to his decision to execute Jesus. Barabbas is tormented by the knowledge that he is alive only because Jesus died in his place. It was the most lavishly produced of Gibran’s books, with some of the illustrations in color. For once, the reviews were strongly and uniformly favorable, and the book has remained the most popular of his works next to The Prophet.

Tags: 1928, GibrankhalilGibran, JesusSonofMan, kahlilgibran

In Digital Archive

Exhibition: Forty Wash-Drawings by Kahlil Gibran [Catalogue], New York: M. Knoedler & Co., January 29-February 10, 1917.

Tags: 1917, Exhibiton, FortyWashDrawings, GibrankhalilGibran, kahlilgibran, M.Knoedler&Co

In Digital Archive

Exhibition: Pictures by Kahlil Gibran [Catalogue], New York: Montross Gallery, December 14-30, 1914.

Tags: 1914, Exhibiton, GibrankhalilGibran, kahlilgibran, MontrossGallery

In Digital Archive

Exhibition of Drawings [Catalogue], New York: M. Knoedler & Co., February 19-March 3, 1917.

Tags: 1917, Drawings, Exhibiton, GibrankhalilGibran, kahlilgibran, M.Knoedler&Co

In Digital Archive

Foreign and American Painters [Catalogue], New York: M. Knoedler & Co., November 27-December 16, 1916.

Tags: Drawings, Exhibiton, kahlilgibran, M.Knoedler&Co

In Digital Archive

Autumn Exhibition [Catalogue], Season 1915-1916, New York: Montross Gallery, October 2-23, 1915.

Tags: 1915, Catalogue, Exhibiton, kahlilgibran, MontrossGallery, NewYork

In Digital Archive

Rasaʼil Jubran [Letters of Kahlil Gibran], Introduction by Jamil Jabr, Beirut: Manshurat Maktabat Bayrut, 1951.

Tags: 1951, GibrankhalilGibran, Kahlil, kahlilgibran, Letters, Rasa'ilJubran

In Digital Archive

At his death Gibran was working on The Garden of the Prophet (1933), which was to be the second volume in a trilogy begun by The Prophet. It is the story of Almustafa’s return to his native island and deals with humanity’s relationship with nature. Of the third volume, “The Death of the Prophet,” only one sentence was written: “And he shall return to the City of Orphalese . . . and they shall stone him in the market-place, even unto death; and he shall call every stone a blessed name.”

Tags: 1933, gardenoftheprophet, GibrankhalilGibran, kahlilgibran

In Digital Archive

An-Nashi’a (The New Generation) was a comprehensive monthly literary magazine dedicated to the advancement of scientific and cultural life in post-World War I Iraq. After the defeat of the Ottoman Empire in that war, Iraq was placed under a League of Nations mandate administered by the British. In 1921, a monarchy was established, and the country went on to gain independence from Britain in 1932. An-Nashi’a was founded at the beginning of the monarchy, and its first editorial declared that the new publication was a response to the needs of the new nation. Only three issues (called parts) appeared before An-Nashi’a ceased publication. The magazine was owned by Ibrahim Salih; its editor-in-chief was Hassan al-Bayati. Each issue started with long essays on a wide range of issues covering literature, science, arts, philosophy, history, new discoveries, lifestyle, and other news and anecdotes from around the world, especially from America. Examples of topics covered included the value of learning; sea life, minerals, and other resources; poets and poems; lessons from history, which cited Alexander the Great and Julius Caesar; sports, and particularly how American newspapers dedicated many pages on a daily basis to news about sports; the “don’ts” of social etiquette; and “immortal words,” a collection of wisdom attributed to figures from around the world, including George Washington. Overall, the magazine had a progressive and worldly air, although it remained anchored in Arabic culture. The last page was typically “from management” and was dedicated to correcting typographical errors, with apologies to the readers. In addition to the owner and the editor-in-chief, contributing writers included some of the leading pan-Arab intellectuals at that time, such as Iraqi Kurdish poet and philosopher Jamīl Ṣidqi Zahawi, Egyptian writer and essayist Mustafa Lutfi Manfaluti, Turkish-Egyptian poet Waliy ud-Deen Yakun, and Lebanese-American writer and artist Kahlil Gibran.

Tags: 1922, An-Nashi'a, GibrankhalilGibran, kahlilgibran, Ru'ya

In Digital Archive

Kahlil Gibran: A Self-Portrait, Translated from the Arabic and Edited by Anthony R. Ferris, New York: The Citadel Press, 1959.

Tags: 1959, anthonyRFerris, aselfportriat, GibrankhalilGibran, kahlilgibran

In Digital Archive

Tears and Laughter, Translated from the Arabic by Anthony R. Ferris, Edited by Martin L. Wolf, New York: Philosophical Library, 1947.

Tags: 1947, AnothonyRFerris, GibrankhalilGibran, kahlilgibran, MartinLWolf, tearsandlaughter

In Digital Archive

Mayy Ziyadah, Rasaʼil Mayy [Letters of Mayy Ziyadah to various recipients, including Kahlil Gibran], Beirut: Dar Bayrut, 1954.

Tags: 1954, GibrankhalilGibran, kahlilgibran, Letters, MayyZiyadah

In Digital Archive

Percy MacKaye, Saint Louis: A Civic Masque, Frontispiece Portrait of Percy MacKaye by Kahlil Gibran, New York: Doubleday Press, 1920.

Tags: kahlilgibran, PercyMacKaye, Portriat

In Digital Archive

Carl Gad, Johan Bojer: The Man and His Works, Frontispiece Portrait of Johan Bojer by Kahlil Gibran, New York: Moffatt, Yard and Company, 1920.

Tags: 1920, CarlGad, JohanBojer, kahlilgibran

In Digital Archive

Spirits Rebellious, Translated from the Arabic by Anthony R. Ferris, Edited by Martin Wolf, New York: Philosophical Library, 1947. 

Tags: 1947, anthonyRFerris, kahilgibran, MartinLWolf, SpiritsRebellious

In Digital Archive

The Secrets of the Heart: Selected Works, Translated from the Arabic by Anthony R. Ferris, Edited by Martin Wolf, New York-Bombay: Philosophical Library-Jaico, 1947.

Tags: 1947, anthonyRFerris, kahlilgibran, SecretsofTheHeart

In Digital Archive

Al-Shu'lah al-Zarqa': Rasa'il Jubran Khalil Jubran ila Mayy Ziyadah [Blue Flame: Letters of Kahlil Gibran to Mayy Ziyadah], Edited by Salma al-Haffar al-Kuzbari and Suheil B. Bushrui, Beirut: Mu'assasat Nawfal, 1984.

Tags: 1984, BlueFlame, JubranKhalilJubran, kahlilgiban, MayyZiyadah

In Digital Archive

Mikhaʼil Nuʻaymah [Mikhail Naimy], Jubran Khalil Jubran: hayatuhu, mawtuhu, adabuhu, fannuhu [Kahlil Gibran: His Life, Death, Literature and Art], Bayrut: Matbaʻat Lisan al-Hal, 1934.

Tags: 1934, HIslifeDeathLiteratureandArt, JubranKhalilJubran, kahlilgibran, MikhailNaimy

In Digital Archive

Salma Sa'igh, Suwar wa-dhikrayat [Images and Memories], Sao Paolo, Brazil, 1946 [digitized by the Moise A. Khayrallah Center for Lebanese Diaspora Studies, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA].

Tags: 1946, ImagesandMemories, JubranKhalilJubran, kahlilgibran, SalmaSaigh

In Digital Archive

Rasa’il Jubran at-ta’ihah [The Lost Letters of Kahlil Gibran], Edited by Riad Hunayn, Beirut: Mu'assasat Nawfal, 1983.

Tags: 1983, kahlilgibran, Letters, TheLostLettersofKahlilGibran

In Digital Archive

Mary Mokarzel, al-Hoda, 1898-1968: The Story of Lebanon and Its Emigrants as taken from the Newspaper Al-Hoda, New York: Al-Hoda Press, 1968 [digitized by the Moise A. Khayrallah Center for Lebanese Diaspora Studies, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA].

Tags: 1898, 1968, al-Hoda, JubranKhalilJubran, kahlilgiban, Lebanon, MaryMokarzel

In Digital Archive

Al-Hoda Centennial: A Tribute to the Pioneers of the Arabic Press in America, New York: Museum of the City of New York - Arab American Institute Foundation, 1998 [digitized by the Moise A. Khayrallah Center for Lebanese Diaspora Studies, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA].

Tags: 1998, al-Hoda, ArabAmerica, kahlilgiban

In Digital Archive

Ruju' al-Habib [The Return of the Beloved], Ayyuha al-Fan [An Ode to the Art], Az-Zouhour, 1, 4, June 1910, pp. 141-145; 1, 5, July 1910, pp. 193-195.

The monthly journal Az-Zouhour ("Flowers") was published in Cairo from 1910 until 1913. Altogether, 40 issues exist. The editor Antoun J. Gemayel (1887-1948) did already participate in the publication of the Beirutian newspaper al-Bashir (1870-1947) and the Egyptian newspaper al-Ahram (1875-today). Literature and art were the main focus whereat the journal mainly tried to support young authors and to improve the relationship between arab writers from different regions. In addition Az-Zouhour wanted to keep the balance between European and contemporary Arabic literature like some other later popular journals. Beside literary criticism, book reviews and news about the literary life in Egypt, the authors stand up for the establishment and enhancement of the egyptian theatre. Az-Zouhour was the first journal to publish in its series a play of Shakespeare, Julius Caesar. Until the cut-off in 1913 the journal organized numerous writing competitions which helped to achieve more popularity. Eventually Az-Zouhour was able to add a significant contribution to the Egyptian literary life.

Tags: 1910, Az-Azouhour, Flower, JubranKhalilJubran, kahlilgibran, ThereturnoofTheBeloved

In Digital Archive

Jurji Zaydan, Al-Hilal, January 1915, pp. 309-310.

Tags: 1915, Al-Hilal, JubranKhalilJubran, jurjizayden, kahilgibran

In Digital Archive

Youth and Age, The Syrian World, 1, 6, December 1926, 3–5 [digitized by the Moise A. Khayrallah Center for Lebanese Diaspora Studies, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA].

Tags: 1926, JubranKhalilJubran, kahlilgibran, TheSyrianWorld, youthandage

In Digital Archive

On the Art of Writing, The Syrian World, 4, 9, May 1930, p. 26 [digitized by the Moise A. Khayrallah Center for Lebanese Diaspora Studies, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA].

Tags: 1930, JubranKhalilJubran, kahlilgibran, OnTheArtofWriting, TheSyrianWorld

In Digital Archive

Critics, The Syrian World, 2, 10, April 1928, p. 34 [digitized by the Moise A. Khayrallah Center for Lebanese Diaspora Studies, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA].

Tags: 1928, AmeenRihani, Critics, GibrankhalilGibran, JubranKhalilJubran, kahlilgibran

In Digital Archive

The Deeper Pain, The Syrian World, 6, 3, November 1931, p. 10 [digitized by the Moise A. Khayrallah Center for Lebanese Diaspora Studies, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA].

Tags: 1931, GibrankhalilGibran, kahlilgiban, TheDeeperPain, TheSyrianWorld

In Digital Archive

A Man from Lebanon Nineteen Centuries Afterward, The Syrian World, 3, 5, November 1928, 21–26 [digitized by the Moise A. Khayrallah Center for Lebanese Diaspora Studies, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA].

Tags: aManfromLebanon, GibrankhalilGibran, kahlilgiban, TheSyrianWorld

In Digital Archive

Defeat [poem], The Syrian World, 3, 7, January 1929, p. 23 [digitized by the Moise A. Khayrallah Center for Lebanese Diaspora Studies, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA].

Tags: 1929, Defeat, GibrankhalilGibran, kahlilgiban, TheSyrianWorld

In Digital Archive

Fame, translated by Andrew Ghareeb, The Syrian World, 3, 10, April 1929, p. 28 [digitized by the Moise A. Khayrallah Center for Lebanese Diaspora Studies, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA].

Tags: 1929, Fame, Ghareeb, GibrankhalilGibran, kahlilgibran, TheSyrianWorld

In Digital Archive

Freedom and Slavery [poem], The Syrian World, 6, 6, February 1932, p. 43 [digitized by the Moise A. Khayrallah Center for Lebanese Diaspora Studies, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA].

Tags: 1932, FreedomandSlavery, GibrankhalilGibran, kahlilgibran, TheSyrianWorld

In Digital Archive

John G. Moses, Annotated Index to The Syrian World, 1926-1932, with the assistance of Eugene Paul Nassar, edited by Judith Rosenblatt, Saint Paul, Minnesota: University of Minnesota - Immigration History Research Center, 1994.

Tags: 1926, 1932, annotatedindex, GibrankhalilGibran, kahlilgibran, TheSyrianWorld

In Digital Archive

Khairallah Tannous Khairallah, La Syrie, Paris: Ernest Leroux, 1912.

Tags: 1912, JubranKhalilJubran, kahlilgiban, KhairallahTannousKhairallah, LaSyrie

In Digital Archive

al-Nabī [The Prophet], Translated into Arabic by Antūniyūs Bashīr, al-Qāirah: al-Maṭbaʻah al-Raḥmānīyah bi-Miṣr, 1926.

Tags: 1926, al-nabi, arabic, GibrankhalilGibran, kahlilgiran, TheProphet

In Digital Archive

Kalimat Jubran, edited by Antonius Bashir, Beirut: al-Maktabat al-Thaqafia, n.d. [1st edition: al-Qahirah: Yusuf Bustani, 1927].

Tags: 1927, AntoniusBashir, Bustani, JubranKhalilJubran, kahilgibran, KalimatJubran

In Digital Archive

Gibran’s Message to Young Americans of Syrian Origin (reprinted from the first issue of Syrian World), The Syrian World, 5, 8, April 1931, pp. 44–45 [digitized by the Moise A. Khayrallah Center for Lebanese Diaspora Studies, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA].

___________

The issue is especially long as it was published the same month famed poet and contributor to the Syrian World, Kahlil Gibran, passed away. There are only just a few inclusions in the article that are not related to Gibran's passing. The first is an article discussing the concept of chivalry in Arabia and Islam. This article primarily deals with the origin of chivalry, which seems to point to the crusades in which Moslem and Christian knights met in combat. Salloum Mokarzel in addition to his tribute work to Gibran is featured for the continuation of his travels through Jebel-Druze. There is then the usual installment of Ali Zaibaq, now a regular series of The Syrian World, and finally there is the inclusion of what usually closes the issues out, the political developments in Syria and excerpts from the Arab press. However intermingled within the regular stories, are works dedicated to Gibran. First there is a discussion of his last days, followed by a description of his Boston funeral. The remainder of the pieces are works by other authors normally featured in the Syrian World, and while the rest pay tribute to one of the most important Lebanese literary figures of all time.

Tags: 1931, GibrankhalilGibran, kahlilgibran, MessagetoYoungAmercicans, SyrainWorld, Syrian

In Digital Archive

On Giving and Taking, The Syrian World, 4, 7, March 1930, p. 32 [digitized by the Moise A. Khayrallah Center for Lebanese Diaspora Studies, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA].

Tags: 1930, GibrankhalilGibran, GivingandTaking, kahilgibran, TheSyrianWorld

In Digital Archive

On Giving and Taking, The Syrian World, 5, 2, October 1930, p. 38 [digitized by the Moise A. Khayrallah Center for Lebanese Diaspora Studies, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA].

Tags: 1930, GibrankhalilGibran, GivingandTaking, kahlilgibran, TheSyrianWorld

In Digital Archive

The Syrian American Directory Almanac 1930, New York: Arida & Andria, 1929, pp. 17, 43.

Tags: 1930, almanac, directory, GibrankhalilGibran, kahlilgiban, Syrian

In Digital Archive

The Art of Kahlil Gibran [Exhibition Guide], Boston Public Library, January 6-29, 1983.

Tags: 1983, Boston, Exhibiton, kahlilgeorgegibran, theartofkahlilgibran

In Digital Archive

Twelve books in one omnibus edition: The Prophet, The Wanderer, Sand and Foam, The Madman, The Forerunner, The Earth Gods, Nymphs of the Valley, Tears and Laughter, Between Night and Morn, Secrets of the Heart, Spirits Rebellious, The Broken Wings.

Tags: betweennightandmorn, Forerunner, Madman, nymphsofthevalley, Prophet, sandandfoam, SecretsofTheHeart, SpiritsRebellious, tearsandlaughter, thebrokenwings, theearthgods, Wanderer

In Digital Archive

‎al-Rābiṭah al-Qalamiyyah (The Pen League), also known as Arrabitah, was the first Arab-American literary society, formed initially by Nasib Arida and Abdul Massih Haddad in 1915-1916, and subsequently re-formed in 1920 by a group of Arab writers in New York led by Kahlil Gibran, from a group of writers who has been working closely since 1911. The league dissolved following Gibran's death in 1931 and Mikhail Naimy's return to Lebanon in 1932. The primary goals of The Pen League were, in Naimy's words as Secretary, "to lift Arabic literature from the quagmire of stagnation and imitation, and to infuse a new life into its veins so as to make of it an active force in the building up of the Arab nations", and to promote a new generation of Arab writers. As Naimy expressed in the by-laws he drew up for the group: "The tendency to keep our language and literature within the narrow bounds of aping the ancients in form and substance is a most pernicious tendency; if left unopposed, it will soon lead to decay and disintegration... To imitate them is a deadly shame... We must be true to ourselves if we would be true to our ancestors."

Tags:

In Digital Archive

Ameen Rihani [Amīn Fāris al-Rīḥānī], Ilà Jubrān [To Gibran], Hutāf al-awdiyah: shiʻr manthūr [Hymn of the Valleys: Prose Poems], Bayrūt: Dār al-Rīḥānī lil-Ṭibāʻah wa-al-Nashr, 1955, pp. 123-136.

Tags: 1955, AmeenRihani, GibrankhalilGibran, HymnOfTheValley

In Digital Archive

Elia Abu Madi [Īlīyā Abū Māḍī], Diwān Īlīyā Abū Māḍī, Muqaddimah Jubrān Khalīl Jubrān [Introduction by Kahlil Gibran], New York: Matba'at Mir'at al-Gharb, 1919, pp. 3-5.

Tags: 1919, diwanlliyaabumadi, eliaabumadi, introduction, Mira'atal-gharb, NewYork

In Digital Archive

ʻAbd al-Masīḥ Ḥaddād, Inṭibāʻāt mughtarib fī Sūrīyah, Dimashq: Wizārat al-Thaqāfah wa-al-Irshād al-Qawmī, Mudīrīyat al-Taʼlīf wa-al-Tarjamah, 1962

Tags: abd-al-Masih, al-Rabitahal-Qalamiyah, JubranKhalilJubran, thepenbond, thepenleague

In Digital Archive

A collection of four stories. The title character of “Warda al-Hani” is a young woman in an arranged marriage with a kindly older man whom she does not love. She leaves him for a younger lover, disgraced in the eyes of the world but honest in love. In “Surakk al-qubur” (The Cry of the Graves) the emir sentences three criminals to death: a young man who murdered an official, a woman caught by her husband in adultery, and an old man who stole precious ornaments from a church. The narrator approves of the emir’s stern justice, but the day after the executions he learns the truth: the young man was defending a girl the official wanted to rape; the woman loved a young man but had been married against her will; and the old man rented land from the monastery, but the monks left him with so little that his family was starving. In “Madja’ al-’arus” (The Bridal Bed), which Gibran claims is a true story, a girl is tricked into marrying a man she does not love; she kills her true love and herself on her wedding day. In “Khalil al-kafir” (Khalil the Heretic), the most ambitious story in the collection, the young monk Khalil denounces other monks for violating the teachings of Christ. He is beaten and brought to trial, where his eloquence wins over the villagers. They demand that he be made headman, but Khalil knows that power corrupts. He refuses the position and lives quietly with his lover.

Tags:

In Digital Archive

Al-Ajnihah al-Mutakassirah [Broken Wings], New York: Mir'at al-Gharb, 1912 [owned by Mary Elizabeth Haskell; inscribed by the Author]. In 1912 Gibran published al-Ajniha al-mutakassira, which he seems to have written several years earlier. The novella is his only attempt at a sustained narrative. When he was eighteen, the narrator fell in love in Beirut with Salma Karama. Forced by her father to marry an archbishop’s nephew, Salma was able to meet her lover occasionally until they were discovered together. Salma was then confined to her home and eventually died in childbirth. Reviews in the Arabic press were strongly positive, though there were some reservations about the character of Salma and Gibran’s views on the position of Arab women. The book led to a correspondence with the Syrian writer May Ziyada that evolved into an epistolary love affair.

Tags: GibrankhalilGibran, kahlilgibran, maryhaskellminis, thebrokenwings