The Kahlil Gibran Collective

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In Digital Archive

Stacy D Fahrenthold, "Making Nations, in the Mahjar: Syrian and Lebanese Long-Distance Nationalism in New York City, Sao Paulo, and Buenos Aires (1913-1929), Northeastern University, Boston, MA, June 2014.

Tags: 2014, ArabAmerican, LittleSyria, Mahjar, Nationalism

In Digital Archive

Fadi Ahmad Al-Issa, "Living on the Hyphen: The Literature of the Early Arab-American Between 1870-1940", The Florida State University, 2003.

Tags: 2003, ArabAmerican, Mahjar

In Digital Archive

Suheil B. Bushrui, "The First Arab Novel in English: The Book of Khalid", Odisea, no 14, 2013, pp. 27-36. 

Tags: 2013, AmeenRihani, Mahjar, PenLeague, SuheilBushrui

In Digital Archive

Mohammad Shahidul Islam, "Ameen Rihani: Founder of Mahjari Literature", The Arts Faculty Journal, Dhaka University, Vol, 3, Nos. 4 & 5 July 2008-June 2010. 

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Ameen Rihani (1876-1940) was a Lebanese-born Christian Arab and a prominent member of the al-Mahjar (Emigrant) school of modern Arabic literature and thought. His literary ventures covered the novel, short story, essay, poetry, biography, travel writing and translation. This Lebanese-American writer, philosopher and political activist devoted his life to bringing the East and West together in the first half of the twentieth century. Through his early literary activity in the United States, he made a highly significant contribution to Arabic essay writing and to the development of modern Arabic poetry. Being a critic of Arabic poetry and the first one to write prose poetry in Arabic, he earned himself the title ‘Father of Prose Poetry’. He is also the first Arab American to write in English, and so-known as the founding father of ‘Arab-American literature’. The aim of this article is to highlight the contribution of Ameen Rihani, especially in Mahjar literature.
 
Tags: 2010, AmeenRihani, Mahjar, PenLeague

In Digital Archive

Amani Jebali, "Exile in Ameen Rihani‘s The Book of Khalid", Université de Nantes, July 2017. 
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In this research, I intended to focus on Ethnic American literature. Among the Hispanic-American, African-American, or Jewish-American communities, there is also one that thrived into the American society and produced its own exceptional literary creations. Indeed, I am taking into consideration the Arab-American populace as one of the important components of the American cosmopolitan society. Arab-Americans travelled from the Levant to the United States in search for peace and in order to escape all of the religious and political persecutions that ravaged the Arab world in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries under the disgraceful violations of tyrannical powers. Crossing seas, abandoning families and leaving behind a life and a home was not an option nor a choice for these newcomers. They saw in the United States a place where their troubles would come to an end, and where their self-respect can be restored through work. Arab- American settlers brought to life their artistic fervour, their music, and their literature. The latter first started to thrive in the early Twentieth Century. It created a captivating mixture between the American and Arab cultures. In fact, each ethnic community has its memories, and still survives thanks to its original heritage; and each category still breathes in the remnants of its initial homeland. That is why I chose to introduce and understand one of the major Arab-American literary productions, whether in volume, form, or theme. Thus, in this thesis, my focal point will be The Book of Khalid, by Lebanese-American writer Ameen Rihani, who belongs to the first wave of Arab-American immigrants –started in 1880 and ended in 1924. This book was first published in New York in 1911 and was initially received by an American readership. Although it examined both Arab and American concerns through its archaic English embroidered by some terms in the Arabic language reflecting Arab concerns, it mostly handled the journey of a certain Lebanese Khalid, who travels to America, and then comes back to Greater Syria in a futile attempt to connect his Levant to his New York, and to link the skyscrapers to the Cedars. The book‘s structure is quite intricate and unique. Indeed, it is divided into three books: To Man, to Nature, and to God. It is also introduced as a lost manuscript in a library in Cairo by the narrator. The reader is told that an Editor weaved its lost pieces to make a coherent story. Within the Book of Khalid, a testimony from his long-time friend Shakib entitled the Histoire Intime is included to bolster the events in Khalid‘s life. Finally, the Editor of the book—to reinforce his criticism-- does not hesitate to give his own personal opinion about Khalid‘s experiences and different adventures. Rihani‘s Khalid is also characterized by humour and satire. It is also highly poetical and fraught with references to poets, philosophers, and historical places. Thus, this research will analyze the physical and mental exile of the protagonist along with its political and religious manifestations, essentially on the intellectual level. Exile was distinctly destructive and emotionally deteriorating, especially for Khalid, who incarnated Rihani‘s own image of a writer and philosopher who relentlessly fought to enlighten the two peoples and pave for them away for fruitful communication rather than for a clash. Thus, Rihani, in this book, created Khalid to explain his vision of a world where perpetual exile is the fate of a Lebanese-American, unless the ―West‖ and the ―East‖ are fused together in an attempt at destroying invisible barriers and at building a universal home where humanity is each person‘s motto.
 
Tags: 2017, AmeenRihani, Mahjar, PenLeague

In Digital Archive

Waïl S. Hassan, "The rise of Arab-American literature: Orientalism and cultural translation in the work of Ameen Rihani", American Literary History, Volume 20, Issue 1-2, Spring-Summer 2008, pp. 245-275.
 
Tags: 2008, AmeenRihani, ArabAmerican, Mahjar, PenLeague

In Digital Archive

Amani Jebali, "Transcendence in The Book of Khalid and The Book of Mirdad", Université de Nantes, 2018. 

Tags: 2018, AmeenRihani, ArabAmerican, Mahjar, MikhailNaimy, PenLeague

In Digital Archive

Marina Tolmacheva, In Memoriam: Anna Dolinina (1923–2017), Review of Middle East Studies, 51(2), 2017, pp. 339–340.

Tags: 2017, AnnaDolinina, Mahjar, translation

In Digital Archive

Salvatore Ritrovato, "Poeti arabi della diaspora. Versi e prose liriche di Kahlil Gibran, Ameen Rihani, Mikhail Naimy, Elia Abu Madi", «Poesia», XXIX, 320, Nov, 2016, p. 68 (review)

Tags: 2016, A-Mohajer, FrancescoMedici, italian, Mahjar, Review

In Digital Archive

Myriam Olguín Tenorio & Patricia Peña González, "La inmigración árabe en Chile", Santiago: Instituto Chileno Arabe de Cultura, 1990.

Tags: 1990, chile, Mahjar, spanish

In Digital Archive

Sarah M. A. Gualtieri, "Between Arab and White: Race and Ethnicity in the Early Syrian American Diaspora", Berkeley-Los Angeles-London: University of California Press, 2009.

Tags: 2009, Mahjar

In Digital Archive

Stacy Fahrenthold, "Transnational Modes and Media: The Syrian Press in the Mahjar and Emigrant Activism During World War I", Mashriq & Mahjar 1, no. 1 (2013), pp. 30-54. 
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This article argues that during World War I, the Syrian and Lebanese periodical press in the American mahjar created new space for transnational political activism. In São Paulo, Buenos Aires, and New York City, diasporic journalists and political activists nurtured a new nationalist narrative and political culture in the press. In a public sphere linking mahjar to mashriq, what began with discussions about Ottoman political reform transformed into nationalist debate during the war. Intellectuals constructed and defined the “Syrian” and “Lebanese” national communities in the diaspora's newspapers, but the press also played an important practical role in promoting and shaping patterns of charity, remittances, and political activism towards the homeland. Using materials from this press, the article concludes that the newspaper industry's infrastructure enabled new patterns of political activism across the mahjar, but also channeled Syrian efforts into a complex alliance with France by the eve of the Mandate.
 
Tags: article, Mahjar, 2013
Tags: 2013, article, Mahjar

In Digital Archive

Trevor Le Gassick, "Modern Arabic Prose Literature: An Introduction", Michigan University, Ann Arbor., Institute of International Studie, Washington, D.C., 1970.
 
Tags: 1970, Mahjar, report, thesis

In Digital Archive

Hüseyin Günday, Şener Şahin, Fadime Kavak, "Literary Influences of Gibran Khalil Gibran", International Journal of Business and Social Science, Vol. 6, No. 3, March, 2015, pp. 148-154.
 
Gibran Khalil Gibran, one of the earliest figures of Mahjar literature, is a notable Arab intellectual of Lebanese origin who influenced both Eastern and Western thinkers and luminaries thanks to mystic and philosophical thoughts crystallized in his literary works. Hereby study explores the roots of his philosophical and mystic ideas, duly reflected in his emotional literary works, in East and West. 


Tags: 2015, article, Mahjar

In Digital Archive

Homam Altabaa & Adham Hamawiya, "The Life and Works of Kahlil Gibran: A Critical Review", Asiatic, Vol. 13, No. 1, June 2019, pp. 103-118. 
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There have been numerous dedicated studies on the life and works of Kahlil Gibran (1883-1931) which is understandable due to his stature and popularity in Arabic and American literatures. Nonetheless, it has been argued that the literary establishment has not given Gibran his due credit, especially in the United States, since Gibran has attained global recognition, been translated into tens of languages and sold more volumes than all other poets of America, including Walt Whitman and T.S. Eliot. This review seeks to present an overview of the studies about Gibran and highlight, when possible, the input of these studies on the spiritual aspects in his creative writings. These studies about Gibran and his works have been written in various languages, but the focus here will be on the studies published in English and Arabic, originally or in translation.
 
Tags: 2019, article, Mahjar, study